Cold calling refers to a protocol used in classroom-style instruction settings (or other similar settings) where the instructor calls on individual students to ask questions posed by the instructor on a regular basis during lecture. The key feature of cold call is the unpredictability about who will get called for a particular question, or equivalently, the unpredictability for each individual about when he or she will get called.
Cold calling (or rather, whether and how it is used) is an important element of classroom instruction as performance.
- 1 Advantages
- 2 Disadvantages
- 3 Worst practices and pitfalls
- 4 Parameters relevant to individual cold call instances
- 5 Student and question selection parameters
- 6 In practice
- Cold calling is advantageous primarily because it dramatically increases the extent to which students are required (or at any rate nudged) to paying attention and actively thinking about the material being covered in class. With a method such as voluntary participation, only the students who choose to participate and think they have a shot at getting the answers will participate. On the other hand, with cold calling, all students, knowing that they can be called upon, are listening closely and working out the answers.
- Cold calling might also help break the ice in the classroom and make students more comfortable interacting with each other and the instructor. If executed well, people can feel more confident.
- Cold calling is a great way for everybody to get to know each other, connecting name, face, voice, and some features of their answers.
- Instructors have a constant and regularly updated idea of how well the class is understanding specific ideas, and is therefore less likely to succumb to the illusion of transparency.
- Students have a constant and regularly updated idea of how well they an their peers are understanding specific material, and are therefore less likely to succumb to the double illusion of transparency. Note however, that cold calling using questions that are not of diagnostic use could cement, rather than shatter, the double illusion of transparency.
- If poorly executed, cold calling could generate resentment among students, leading to students missing class, or adopting an adversarial attitude to the instructor.
- Cold calling could be construed as an abuse of the instructor's authority or power over the students.
- Cold calling could disorient instructors and students if it shatters the illusion of transparency, causing a lecture to go off-plan.
- Cold calling could waste a lot of time.
- If students sense that poor performance on cold calling will cause the instructor to go slower and cover less material, they are incentivized to perform poorly.
Worst practices and pitfalls
Cold calling is generally viewed negatively due to some perceived connotations. However, most of the negative connotations are generally avoidable. Some pitfalls to avoid with cold calling are:
- Do not be judgmental or negative at students for passing on cold call questions, or for answering them incorrectly. If student performance on a particular cold call question is cause for concern (e.g., you feel the student doesn't understand a basic prerequisite for the course), then talk to the student privately after class in a non-threatening manner.
- Do not spend too much time on a particular student (with all others' eyes on that student), even in an apparently positive manner, because some students may react negatively but hide it.
- Do not force students to participate against their will. Offer students reasonable opt-out opportunities, either at the beginning of class or at the begining of the course (note that in settings where you want to teach classroom discipline in addition to the subject matter, you might disallow opting out; see no opt out).
- If overall performance on cold call questions is bad, do not blame the students at large or otherwise lose your cool. Point out that the cold calling has helped you discover an area of student weakness, and cooperatively attempt to find ways to remedy the problems so that you can proceed. Take part of the blame ("I didn't explain this clearly enough" or "I'll try to think of a better way of explaining it") to make the cooperative aspect more salient than any confrontational connotations students might read.
- Do not use cold calling as a gotcha to catch students who you think were not paying attention. This doesn't mean you shouldn't cold call students who you think weren't paying attention, but you shouldn't do so with the explicit purpose of shaming them publicly. If they admit that they weren't paying attention, then be gracious about it (for instance, repeat the question, or let them pass on it, promising to come back to them soon).
Parameters relevant to individual cold call instances
The implementation of cold calling can be tweaked in a number of ways. Some of these are described below.
The instructor can choose different possibilities in time for when to reveal who is being called to answer the question. Below are some possibilities:
|Before stating the question to the class||The individual student can listen clearly to the question and need not ask the instructor to repeat||It forgoes one of the main benefits of cold calling: all students are trying to think of the answer to every question. Instead, since the name of the person answering is specified in advance, other students may reduce their level of attention.|
|Within a few seconds of stating the question to the class||All students have had time to hear and process the question||Individual students may not have been paying concentrated attention since they didn't know for sure that it's a question they might answer. Thus, the student who is asked the question may ask the instructor to repeat it.|
|Give a chunk of time to everybody to work out the answer (this may involve flipping through recent or earlier notes, or doing calculations, or taking time to formulate thoughts), and then reveal who'll be called|| All students have had time to hear and process the question and attempt an answer. Thus, they can grade themselves by proxy upon hearing the correct answer.
The technique can also be combined with checking seat work either before or after the cold call.
|This takes more time, and students may slack off in that timespan of a few seconds if the material seems too easy or too difficult.|
Dealing with non-response
The instructor can choose different possibilities for what to do if the student says "pass" or "I have no idea" or "not sure" or something equally non-informative. The strategies include:
|Press the student to try more (this may be accompanied with allotting a bit of extra time, providing a hint or cue, or modifying the question to make it somewhat easier)|| sends students a message that partial progress is possible
avoids sending the message that students can easily pass
| in some cases, the student just isn't equipped to answer the question, and pressing the student can waste time and generate resentment.|
Deprives other students of opportunity to answer, and therefore deprives them of incentives to work towards an answer.
|Cold call another student|| results in more efficient reaching of the answer
sends message to students that they should keep thinking about how to solve the question even if somebody else is being asked the question.
|sends message to students that they can easily "pass" on questions.|
|Switch to seeking voluntary participation||results in more efficient reaching of the answer|| undermines part of the psychological pressure of cold calling (and the incentives it generates for paying attention), to a greater extent than the two preceding methods|
Students may not be willing to volunteer answers
|Return to either revealing the answer or re-teaching a relevant portion that makes the answer easier to obtain||efficient use of time if a fixed amount of material needs to be covered||undermines the psychological pressure of cold calling and the incentives it generates for paying attention.|
Dealing with responses
Students may give answers that are partly or wholly correct. They may give partial answers with promise. There are multiple strategies for dealing with the variety of answers possible.
|Press the student more, allowing the student to completely arrive at the answer.|| sends a "can-do" message
encourages partial progress
| deprives other students of the incentive to work out the answer|
may take too much time
|Do not immediately reveal your opinion on the response (i.e., whether it was correct, complete, etc.). Instead, seek answers from other students (using additional rounds of cold calling, polling, or voluntary participation).||all students continue thinking about the question, and also learn to evaluate the plausibility of existing answers||takes more time, particularly if the original answer is correct|
|Reveal minimal information (such as "right" or "wrong") and, if wrong, solicit more responses through cold calling, polling, or voluntary participation||all students continue thinking about the problem, but the possibility space narrows somewhat, allowing students to discard some conjectures and hone in on others|| Takes more time compared to just revealing the answer|
destroys the suspense compared to soliciting multiple answers before revealing "right" or "wrong"
|Reveal the answer immediately||takes less time||reduces opportunities for students to think about and arrive at the answer|
Student and question selection parameters
Matching students with questions
One of the harder problems in effective cold calling is to determine how students and questions should be matched. There are two broad strategies:
|Match by difficulty, i.e., the distribution of questions a student sees is adjusted to the competency demonstrated by the student. This is done adaptively, rather than based on a static assessment of the student.||students get questions they can reasonably attempt, but that are not too easy for them||students quickly "place" themselves based on the difficulty of the questions they are getting. Students getting easy questions correctly infer that the instructor has a low opinion of their competency, and this may turn into a self-fulfilling prophecy (the pygmalion effect in reverse).|
|Give similar questions to everybody||fair and easy to implement||students may feel embarrassed at frequently getting questions they are stuck at, and others may be bored at getting questions that are too easy.|
Frequency of calling for individual students
Should all students be called equally? There are two broad strategies:
|adjust the degree of cold calling to the degree of enthusiasm displayed by the student||makes for a more harmonious interaction. Some students are okay with being cold called occasionally, but not frequently. Others love to be cold called.||students who are cold called infrequently lose part of the benefitsof "always being on one's toes" that are conferred by cold calling.|
|cold call everybody equally||fair and equitable||some students may resent being cold called (one solution is to cold call everybody equally except students who explicitly opt out; however, this fails to address the needs of students who would like to be cold called but only occasionally).|
Allow for opting in or out
Instructors may give students the option of opting out of being cold called, either during a given lecture (for instance, if the student is feeling sick or stressed out) or for the entire course.
Some instructors may make cold calling an "opt-in" feature. However, this runs the risk of very few people choosing to opt in and the system thereby not being too different from voluntary participation.
Difficulty distribution of questions
The questions used for cold calling can range based on parameters such as:
- Competency level needed to answer.
- Time needed to answer.
- How far back in time the tested ideas were covered (easy means things that were either covered very recently or that are part of the student's firm knowledge background; hardest is the stuff that was done a few days ago but that the student has not yet mastered).
Some instructors may make performance on cold calling may be part of a participation grade. Other instructors may choose to not use performance on cold calling as an input to determining the grade at all.
Identification as a technique used by good teachers
In his book Teach Like A Champion Doug Lemov identifies cold calling as one of the 49 techniques used by champion teachers. Lemov's book is targeted at school level teachers.
Effect on voluntary participation
There are conflicting a priori theoretical intuitions regarding the effect of cold calling on voluntary participation. On the one hand, by breaking the ice, cold calling may encourage voluntary participation. On the other hand, cold calling may discourage voluntary participation by substituting away from it. A study claims to find a positive relationship between cold calling and voluntary participation over time.