"Proponents of errorless learning (e.g., Guthrie, 1952; Skinner, 1958; Terrace, 1963) suggest that failing to answer a question or answering incorrectly makes future errors more likely. Furthermore, being measured alters knowledge representations, and sometimes questioning can lead to memory distortions (see Davis & Loftus, 2007; Roediger & Marsh, 2005). Thus, testing has the potential to distort knowledge, particularly for any items not recalled correctly." (p. 244)
- Richland; Kornell; Kao. "The Pretesting Effect: Do Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts Enhance Learning?"