Importance of struggling in learning

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One axis along which explainers seem to differ is their degree of belief in the importance of struggling in learning. Roughly speaking, the "two sides" are:

  • "Don't needlessly struggle" view: a good explanation should be easy to process, and be as intuitive as possible. Aim low [1].
  • "Struggling is important/essential for understanding" view: A good explanation should be effortful for the learner to process. It should e.g. present misconceptions and make the learner to "do the work".

The truth might be some sort of mixture. To optimize for struggle would be to e.g. put the learner in a psychologically stressful state, with little support, to deliberately confuse them, etc., which seems unhelpful. On the other hand, it isn't clear what a totally intuitive explanation would look like.

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