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List of terms related to generation

Term Description Antonym
Generation The act of the learner generating an answer themselves rather than reading an answer. This is the overarching term that can be used whether the learner knew the material beforehand or not (whereas recall is used when the learner knew the material at some point beforehand but could have forgotten it). See generation effect. Recognition/discrimination
Active recall/quiz and recall Passive recall
Testing effect A phenomenon where retrieval practice enhances retention (compared to what?). This effect justifies active recall as a study method.
Pretesting effect A phenomenon where even failing to produce the correct answer or testing before learning a material improves test scores relative to regular studying (what is regular studying?).[1] This effect justifies generation, especially generation before learning a topic (meditation, inquiry-based learning, etc.). Errorless learning
Generation effect There is at least one paper (by Slamecka and Graf) that uses this term. But is it different from the pretesting effect?
Meditation A term used by Eliezer Yudkowsky to describe an exercise for the reader that the reader is encouraged to complete before reading on. There isn't really an antonym for this (because there are many alternatives to passive reading), but meditations are intended to be contrasted with normal (passive) reading

See also


  1. "The Pre-Testing Effect". The University of Chicago Learning Lab. Retrieved November 6, 2018.