→Questions that can be answered without understanding
* Questions that can easily be answered through a recall, based on [[short term memory]], of what the other person said ''very recently''. For instance, a sentence like "Rooks are more valuable than bishops in chess" followed by the question "who is more valuable in chess: rooks or bishops?" can be answered by invoking short term memory and elementary sentence-parsing skills, without necessarily having an understanding of what the terms ''rook'', ''valuable'', ''chess'', and ''bishop'' actually mean.
* Questions that test other forms of knowledge. For instance, a teacher solving an arithmetic problem may need to compute the sum of 14 and 11 in one step, and writes "14 + 11" at the appropriate place in the step. The teacher asks the learner what the next step is. The learner sees the 14 + 11, and correctly replaces it by 25. The learner has correctly carried out an addition, but this does not mean that the learner actually understands or remembers the algorithm in use or that the
student can execute it correctly.
* Questions that can be answered by random guesses or by reading contextual cues: For instance, yes/no questions can be answered with 50% likelihood by random guessing. If the teacher reveals some cues, for instance, with the choice of wording or intonation, the learner may, consciously or subconsciously, use those cues to get the correct answer.