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Pretesting effect

77 bytes added, 02:22, 13 November 2018
{| class="sortable wikitable"
! Mechanism name !! Description !! What the learner gets Interventions that make use of this mechanism !! Example
| Attention direction || The [[learner]] might just be cued to pay attention to specific things later on as they go through the learning material. (called [[mathemagenic behavior]]s or "learning-generating" behaviors). a.k.a. "affecting learners' looking behaviors". (p. 250)<ref name="richland-2009" /> || Italicizing/bolding key parts of reading material; memorizing questions; answering pretest questions || "For example, Rothkopf and Bisbicos (1967) found that asking participants questions in which the answers were numbers led to better retention of all numerical information in the text, possibly because participants were able to direct their attention to the type of information that was important to learn given the test they would take." (p. 244)<ref name="richland-2009">Lindsey E. Richland; Nate Kornell; Liche Sean Kao. "The Pretesting Effect: Do Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts Enhance Learning?" ''Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied''. 2009, Vol. 15, No. 3, 243–257.</ref>
| Supporting the organization of knowledge structures by guiding learning || helping "as an organizational framework to better structure causal structure and knowledge interpretations" (I can barely make out what this even means..) (p. 250)<ref name="richland-2009" /> I think this is specifically meant to ''not'' be attention direction. So it's not that you're looking at the right places in the reading material; rather, somehow reading the questions cues up your "organizational framework" in some deeper way. || seeing potential test Memorizing questions; answering pretest questions before beginning to study ||
| Deep processing of the questions || || seeing potential test Memorizing questions; answering pretest questions before beginning to study || e.g. from memorizing the questions
| Active attempt to recall key information from memory || || attempting (albeit unsuccessfully) to answer test Answering pretest questions ||

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